Automated interlinking of speech radio archives
Yves Raimond / Christopher Lowis /
The BBC is currently tagging programmes manually, using DBpedia as a source of tag identifiers, and a list of suggested tags extracted from their synopsis. These tags are then used to help navigation and topic-based search of BBC programmes. However, given the very large number of programmes available in the archive, most of them having very little metadata attached to them, we need a way of automatically assigning tags to programmes. We describe a framework to do so, using speech recognition, text processing and concept tagging techniques. We evaluate this framework against manually applied tags, and compare it with related work. We find that this framework is good enough to bootstrap the interlinking process of archived content.
Automated semantic tagging of speech audio
Yves Raimond / Christopher Lowis / Roderick Hodgson / Jonathan Tweed /
The BBC is currently tagging programmes manually, using DBpedia as a source of tag identifiers, and a list of sug- gested tags extracted from the programme synopsis. These tags are then used to help navigation and topic-based search of programmes on the BBC website. However, given the very large number of programmes available in the archive, most of them having very little metadata attached to them, we need a way to automatically assign tags to programmes. We describe a framework to do so, using speech recognition, text processing and concept tagging techniques. We describe how this framework was successfully applied to a very large BBC radio archive. We demonstrate an application using automatically extracted tags to aid discovery of archive content.
Evaluation of the Music Ontology Framework
Proceedings of ESWC, volume 7295 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer
Yves Raimond / Mark Sandler /
The Music Ontology provides a framework for publishing structured music-related data on the Web, ranging from editorial data to temporal annotations of audio signals. It has been used extensively, for example in the DBTune project and on the BBC Music website. Until now it hasn’t been systematically evaluated and compared to other frameworks for handling music-related data. In this article, we design a 'query-driven' ontology evaluation framework capturing the intended use of this ontology. We aggregate a large set of real-world music-related user needs, and evaluate how much of it is expressible within our ontological framework. This gives us a quantitative measure of how well our ontology could support a system addressing these real-world user needs. We also provide some statistical insights in terms of lexical coverage for comparison with related description frameworks and identify areas within the ontology that could be improved.
A Voice Classification System for Younger Children with Applications to Content Navigation
Christopher Lowis / Christopher Pike / Yves Raimond /
A speech classification system is proposed which has applications for accessibility of content for younger children. To allow a young child to access online content (where typical interfaces such as search engines or hierarchical navigation would be inappropriate) we propose a voice classification system trained to recognise a range of sounds and vocabulary typical of younger children. As an example we design a system for classifying animal noises. Acoustic features are extracted from a corpus of animal noises made by a class of young children. A Support Vector Machine is trained to classify the sounds into one of 12 corresponding animals. We investigate the precision and recall of the classifier for various classification parameters. We investigate an appropriate choice of features to extract from the audio and compare the performance when using mean Mel-frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), a single-Gaussian model fitted to the MFCCs as well as a range of temporal features. To investigate the real-world applicability of the system we pay particular attention to the difference between training a generic classifier from a collected corpus of examples and one trained to a particular voice.
An Overview of Semantic Web Activities in the OMRAS2 Project
Gyorgy Fazekas / Yves Raimond / Kurt Jacobson / Mark Sandler /
The use of cultural information is becoming increasingly important in music information research, especially in music retrieval and recommendation. While this information is widely available on the Web, it is most commonly published using proprietary Web Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). The Linked Data community is aiming at resolving the incompatibilities between these diverse data sources by building a Web of data using Semantic Web technologies. The OMRAS2 project has made several important contributions to this by developing an ontological framework and numerous software tools, as well as publishing music related data on the Semantic Web. These data and tools have found their use even beyond their originally intended scope. In this paper, we first provide a broad overview of the Semantic Web technologies underlying this work. We describe the Music Ontology, an open-ended framework for communicating musical information on the Web, and show how this framework can be extended to describe specific sub-domains such as music similarity, content-based audio features, musicological data and studio production. We describe several data-sets that have been published and data sources that have been adapted using this framework. Finally, we provide application examples ranging from software libraries to end user Web applications.
Use of Semantic Web technologies on the BBC Web Sites
Linking Enterprise Data
Yves Raimond / Tom Scott / Silver Oliver / Patrick Sinclair / Michael Smethurst /
The BBC publishes large amounts of content online, as text, audio and video. As the amount of content grows, we need to make it easy for users to locate items of interest and to draw coherent journeys across them. In this chapter, we describe our use of Semantic Web technologies for achieving this goal. We focus in particular on three BBC Web sites: BBC Programmes, BBC Music and BBC Wildlife Finder, and how those Web sites effectively use the wider Web as their Content Management System.
Case Study: Use of Semantic Web Technologies on the BBC Web Sites
W3C Semantic Web Use Cases and Case Studies
Yves Raimond / Tom Scott / Patrick Sinclair / Libby Miller / Stephen Betts / Frances McNamara /
In this W3C Semantic Web use-case, we describe the use of Linked Data technologies across the bbc.co.uk web site.
Interlinking Music-Related Data on the Web
Yves Raimond / Christopher Sutton / Mark Sandler /
In this article, we describe how some new tools built on Semantic Web technologies allow us to publish and usefully interlink a variety of musical data sources which have traditionally been isolated and difficult to integrate. We show how the results of automatic multimedia content analysis can be added to this ``web of data'' as dynamic computation resources, allowing researchers to easily combine and reuse algorithm implementations and data sets. We describe two concrete examples, respectively dealing with the management of a personal audio collection, and the publishing of dynamically generated content-based similarity statements.
An Ecosystem for Transparent Music Similarity in an Open World
International Conference on Music Information Retrieval, 2009
Kurt Jacobson / Yves Raimond / Mark Sandler /
There exist many methods for deriving music similarity associations and additional variations are likely to be seen in the future. In this work we introduce the Similarity Ontology for describing associations between items. Using a combination of RDF/OWL and N3, our ontology allows for transparency and provenance tracking in a distributed and open system. We describe a similarity ecosystem where agents assert and aggregate similarity statements on the Web of Data allowing a client application to make queries for recommendation, playlisting, or other tasks. In this ecosystem any number of similarity derivation methods can exist side-by-side, specifying similarity relationships as well as the processes used to derive these statements. The data consumer can then select which similarity statements to trust based on knowledge of the similarity derivation processes or a list of trusted assertion agents.
Media meets Semantic Web - How the BBC uses DBpedia and Linked Data to make Connections
European Semantic Web Conference In-Use track, 2009
Georgi Kobilarov / Tom Scott / Yves Raimond / Silver Oliver / Chris Sizemore / Michael Smethurst / Chris Bizer / Robert Lee /
In this paper, we describe how the BBC is working to integrate data and linking documents across BBC domains by using Semantic Web technology, in particular Linked Data, MusicBrainz and DBpedia. We cover the work of BBC Programmes and BBC Music building Linked Data sites for all music and programmes related brands, and we describe existing projects, ongoing development, and further research we are doing in a joint collaboration between the BBC, FU Berlin and Rattle Research in order to use DBpedia as the controlled vocabulary and semantic backbone for the whole BBC. This paper won the best paper award in the in-use track of the European Semantic Web Conference, 2009
SCOVO: Using Statistics on the Web of Data
ESWC 2009 In-Use Track
Michael Hausenblas / Wolgang Halb / Yves Raimond / Lee Feigenbaum / Danny Ayers /
Using the Web as our Content Management System on the BBC Music Beta
WWW 2009 Developers Track
Patrick Sinclair / Nicholas Hunfrey / Yves Raimond / Tom Scott / Michael Smethurst /
Combining Social Music and Semantic Web for Music-related Recommender Systems
Alexandre Passant / Yves Raimond /
A Web of Musical Information
Proceedings of the International Conference on Music Information Retrieval 2008
Yves Raimond / Mark Sandler /
We describe our recent achievements in interlinking several music-related data sources on the Semantic Web. In particular, we describe interlinked datasets dealing with Creative Commons content, editorial, encyclopedic, geographic and statistical data, along with queries they can answer and tools using their data. We describe our web services, providing an on-demand access to content-based features linked with such data sources and information pertaining to their creation (including processing steps, applied algorithms, inputs, parameters or associated developers). We also provide a tool allowing such music analysis services to be set up and scripted in a simple way.
A Framework for Producing Rich Musical Metadata in Creative Music Production
AES 125th Convention, October 2008
Gyorgy Fazekas / Yves Raimond / Mark Sandler /
Musical metadata may include references to individuals, equipment, procedures, parameters or audio features extracted from signals. There are countless possibilities for using this data during the production process. An intelligent audio editor, besides internally relying on it, can be both producer and consumer of information about specific aspects of music production. In this paper, we propose a framework for producing and managing meta information about a recording session, a single take or a subsection of a take. As basis for the necessary knowledge representation we use the Music Ontology with domain specific extensions. We provide examples on how metadata can be used creatively, and demonstrate the implementation of an extended metadata editor in a multitrack audio editor application.
The Programmes Ontology
Proceedings of the XTECH conference, 2008
Yves Raimond / Patrick Sinclair / Nicholas Humfrey / Tom Scott /
BBC Programmes is a new project which aims to ensure that every programme brand, series and episode broadcast by the BBC has a permanent, findable web presence. We have developed the Programmes Ontology to expose this data following the Linked Data approach, enabling the interchange of programme information on the Semantic Web.
Automatic Interlinking of Music Datasets on the Semantic Web
Linking Data on The Web, colocated with the World Wide Web conference, 2008
Yves Raimond / Christopher Sutton / Mark Sandler /
In this paper, we describe current efforts towards interlink- ing music-related datasets on the Web. We first explain some initial interlinking experiences, and the poor results obtained by taking a naive approach. We then detail a par- ticular interlinking algorithm, taking into account both the similarities of web resources and of their neighbours. We detail the application of this algorithm in two contexts: to link a Creative Commons music dataset to an editorial one, and to link a personal music collection to corresponding web identifiers. The latter provides a user with personally mean- ingful entry points for exploring the web of data, and we conclude by describing some concrete tools built to generate and use such links.
Building Linked Data For Both Humans and Machines - How To Get Statistical Data About 500 Million Europeans onto the Semantic Web
Proceedings of Linking Data on The Web, co-located with the World Wide Web conference, 2008
Wolfgang Halb / Yves Raimond / Michael Hausenblas /
Scripting User Contributed Interlinking
Proceedings of the Scripting for the Semantic Web workshop, co-located with the European Semantic Web Conference
Michael Hausenblas / Wolfgang Halb / Yves Raimond /
ZemPod: A Semantic-Web Approach to Podcasting
To appear in: Journal of Web Semantics
Oscar Celma / Yves Raimond /
The Music Ontology
Proceedings of the International Conference on Music Information Retrieval, 2007
Yves Raimond / Samer Abdallah / Mark Sandler / Frederick Giasson /
In this paper, we overview some Semantic Web technologies allowing to create a web of data. We then detail the Music Ontology: a formal framework for dealing with music-related information on the Semantic Web, including editorial, cultural and acoustic information. We de- tail how this ontology can act as a grounding for more domain-specific knowledge representation. In addition, we describe current projects involving the Music Ontology and interlinked repositories of music-related knowledge.
Publishing and Accessing Digital Archives using the EASAIER Framework
Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Cultural Heritage on the Semantic Web, co-located with the International Semantic Web Conference, Busan, Korea
Francois Scharffe / Yves Raimond / Luc Barthelemy / Ying Ding / Michael Luger /
Cultural archives have been massively digitalized in the past twenty years. Many multimedia databases are now available, many locally, more and more on-line. The emergence of the web, and its evolution towards the semantic web opens a new phase for the publication of digital archives. The data and assets they contain can be made available in a structured way, providing more precise, as well as wider querying possibilities. In this paper, we present a lightweight architecture for easily publishing and managing digital archives, based on semantic web technologies. This architecture is successfully being used within the EASAIER (Enabling Access to Sound Archives through Integration, En- richment and Retrieval) European project. We also detail how the Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama HOTBED archive was successfully published using such a system.
EASAIER: Semantic Music Retrieval Portal
Proceedings of the International Semantic Web Conference, 2007, Demo track
Michael Luger / Ying Ding / Zhixian Yan / Francois Scharffe / Yubin Duan / Yves Raimond / Luc Barthelemy / Josh Reiss /
A distributed data space for music-related information
Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Many Faces of Multimedia Semantics
Yves Raimond / Chris Sutton / Mark Sandler /
In this paper, we describe how some key Semantic Web technologies can be used to gather in a single distributed knowledge environment several music-related sources of informa- tion, from digital archives to feature extractors or personal music collections. Such knowledge can then be used for a wide range of purposes, such as aggregation and information retrieval, visualisation and enriched access, or crossrepository interlinking. We also describe on-going efforts aiming at bootstrapping such a data-space, as well as preliminary results.
Using the Semantic Web for Enhanced Audio Experiences
Proceedings of the 123rd Audio Engineering Society convention
Yves Raimond / Mark Sandler /
In this paper, we give a quick overview of some key Semantic Web technologies which allow us to overcome the limitations of the current web of documents to create a machine-processable web of data, where information is accessible by automated means. We then detail a framework for dealing with audio-related information on the Semantic Web: the Music Ontology. We describe some examples of how this ontology has been used to link together heterogeneous data sets, dealing with editorial, cultural or acoustic data. Finally, we explain a methodology to embed such knowledge into audio applications (from digital jukeboxes and digital archives to audio editors and sequencers), along with concrete examples and implementations.
Interlinking Open Data on the Web
Demonstrations Track, 4th European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2007), Innsbruck, Austria
Chris Bizer / Tom Heath / Danny Ayers / Yves Raimond /
An ontology-based approach to information management for music analysis systems
Proceedings of the 120th AES convention, 2006
Samer Abdallah / Yves Raimond / Mark Sandler /
We describe an information management system which addresses the needs of music analysis projects, pro- viding a logic-based knowledge representation scheme for the many types of object in the domains of music and signal processing, including musical works and scores, performance events, human agents, signals, anal- ysis functions, and analysis results. The system is implemented using logic-programming and semantic web technologies, and provides a shareable resource for use in a laboratory environment. The whole is driven from a Prolog command line, where the use of Matlab as a computational engine enables experiments to be designed and run with the results being automatically stored and indexed into the information structure. We present as a case-study an experiment in automatic music segmentation.
A scalable framework for multimedia knowledge management
Book chapter, Semantic Multimedia, Springer, 2006 (Proceedings of the 1st conference on Semantic and Digital Media Technologies)
Yves Raimond / Samer Abdallah / Mark Sandler / Mounia Lalmas /
In this paper, we describe a knowledge management frame- work that addresses the needs of multimedia analysis projects and provides a basis for information retrieval systems. The framework uses Semantic Web technologies to provide a shared knowledge environment, and active Knowledge Machines, wrapping multimedia processing tools, to exploit and/or export knowledge to this environment. This framework is able to handle a wide range of use cases, from an enhanced workspace for researchers to end-user information access. As an illustration of how the proposed framework can be used, we present a case study of music analysis.
Proposal for a common multimedia ontology framework: Information management for music analysis systems
Proposal for a Common Multimedia Ontology Framework, AceMedia
Samer Abdallah / Yves Raimond /
In this proposal, we discuss requirements for and potential applications of a music information management system that represents in a richly structured way not only the media objects themselves and associated metadata, but also the computational systems by which new features and representations of given media objects can be derived.
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